Getting Started Guide

for FC and IP SAN

August 2005
Revision 0.1


Welcome to the MayaStor StorageServer 1.1, a intelligent storage infrastructure software that delivers a multitude of disk services for consolidation, centralized management, capacity planning, data availability and recovery at your fingertips. Your product is engineered for high performance, scalability, flexibility, and ease of use, making it the ideal solution for Fibre-Channel and IP-SAN(iSCSI) based storage infrastructure.

How to use Getting Started

Getting Started introduces you to MayaStor StorageServer and helps you achieve a working SAN in minutes. You will learn how to install, configure, and use MayaStor StorageServer by creating your first volume and assigning it to one or more application servers.
This guide assumes:


The Getting Started Guide is designed to walk you through a sequence of steps for successful installation and configuration of the MayaStor StorageServer.

Getting help

For updated information about this product please visit our web site:


This chapter is designed to introduce you to the storage area network and provide you with a basic understanding of the functions of your product.

Introduction to storage area network

A storage area network (SAN) is a specialized, robust, high-speed interconnect of servers and intelligent storage devices using routers, switches, and directors. SAN enables one or many heterogeneous servers to share a common pool of storage devices, including disk, tape, and optical storage. The storage infrastructure can be local or can be extended over geographical distances. The main benefits include

What is Fibre Channel?

Fibre Channel is a technology designed for very robust, high performance, and low-latency data transfer among various types of devices that can be interconnected. It is the principal technology used to implement Storage Area Networks (SAN). FCP is the storage protocol used in Fibre Channel SAN.

What is iSCSI?

iSCSI is an industry standard storage protocol defined and maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force. Also known as Internet SCSI, iSCSI encapsulates SCSI block storage commands into Ethernet packets for transport over IP networks, enabling companies to leverage standard, familiar Ethernet networking infrastructures to create affordable SANs.

What is snapshot?

A snapshot is a point-in-time image of a disk volume. This image is available as a block device for backup operations to be performed or it can be made to appear as networked volume. Depending on the Linux version of the storage server the snapshot volume can be accessed read/write.

What are the components of MayaStor?

To help your understanding of how MayasStor StorageServer works, the hardware and logical components of MayaStor are described here.

Storage Server

This is the computer where MayaStor StorageServer is installed. This server is easily managed by using the following management software:

A command line interface program based on ONC-RPC protocol for easy local or remote administration.
A graphical user interface component that uses HTTP protocol for local or remote administration.

Some of the management tasks include:

Storage Array

This includes the external direct-attached disks such as fibre channel disks, serial ATA disks and SCSI disks. You would use your Linux administration skill to configure and manage them.

Embedded disks

This includes the disks such as IDE and SCSI disks that are present inside the storage server.


On the MayaStor server it is the fibre channel HBA port number that is running in target mode. They are usually identified as fc0, fc1 and so on. For iSCSI operation it represents all of the attached Ethernet interfaces and is identified by the keyword iscsi.


The Application servers that will make use of the provisioned volumes from he MayaStor storage server over fibre channel or Ethernet interconnect.

Volume group

One or more physical disk drives that are logically grouped together by the Volume Manager supported in Linux. A volume group can provide appropriate raid-level as required by the application server, if the individual drives themselves are RAID disks. A volume group provides increased data availability and I/O performance and online resizing of volume capacity.


This is the basic unit that can be created to store data in the networked storage environment. It can represent a physical disk, disk partition, Linux software raid disk, logical volume from volume group, LVM snapshot volume or any other block device such as loop device, dm-crypt device.

Mapped volume

Mapping is the process of assigning a Logical Unit Number and Controller port number so that it can appear as SCSI3 compliant direct access disk in the Storage Area Network (SAN). You can optionally associate a list of hosts to provide simple LUN security.


Binding is the process of bringing a mapped volume to be online. Only after bind operation the LUN is available for discovery from application server.


Unbinding changes the online device to become offline.

Graphical Interfaces

MayaStor provides the following remote administration graphical interface:

MayaStor Wizards

MayaStor StorageServer provides the following wizards to assist you with installation and configuration. Once you have completed your initial setup with the Getting Started wizard, the individual configuration wizards allow you to add more volume groups, configure volumes, configure hosts, and add new mappings.
Getting Started Provides step-by-step help for configuring MayaStor. With simple easy to follow window prompts, the Getting Started wizard guides you through the following procedures for initial setup:
  • Create Volume group
  • Create MayaStor volume
  • Create application server
  • Map a volume
  • Bind the configured mappings.
Create Volume group Helps you are create a volume group that will act as storage pool.
Create MayaStor volume Helps you are create the volume types;Logical, Snapshot, Simple, RAID and Proxy volume.
Create raid group Helps you create a software raid group of the following raid levels: raid0(stripe), raid1(mirroring), and raid5.
Create application server Helps you create one or more FC or IP SAN hosts.
Map a volume Helps you define the volume to LUN mapping information.

Preparing for Installation

The MayaStor StorageServer is distributed in an easy to install RPM package. To prepare for the installation please review the following steps.

Installation Requirements

Before installing your MayaStor product, make sure you have the most recent patches for LVM and other storage related components. The following are the system requirements:

Configuring Qlogic Fibre Channel HBA driver

The following applies for MayaStor Fibre-Channel edition only. The Qlogic FC HBAs should not be configured with the stock driver that came with the Linux distribution. MayaStor provides the target mode driver for the Qlogic FC HBAs. If your system is already configured with Qlogic FC driver then follow these steps before installing MayaStor.

    For Linux 2.4 based systems:
  1. Remove the aliases for qlogic driver in /etc/modules.conf. Otherwise it will be loaded on demand, when someone probes for block devices.
  2. The initrd image has to be recreated if the qlogic driver is being loaded from there.
  3. Manually remove the driver module
    # rmmod qla2300
  4. If the above step succeeded proceed with the MayaStor installation and reboot is not required.
    For Linux 2.6 based systems:

    If the stock qlogic driver was loaded already, then don't proceed with the installation of MayaStor RPM, otherwise the MayaStor driver will not be able to communicate with qlogic adapter even if you had manually unloaded the existing driver. Reboot of the system is required after insuring that the stock driver will not load again by following these steps.

  1. The initrd image has to be recreated if the qlogic driver is being loaded from there.
  2. Add the original qlogic driver in the hotplug blacklist. The installation script does this for you.
  3. Reboot the system. After this your system is ready for MayaStor installation.

Configuring Storage Devices

  1. Complete all of the configuration steps specified by the storage device vendor.
  2. Verify that the configured storage devices can be accessed and are listed in /proc/scsi/scsi.

Product Installation

The software is available as standard Linux RPM package for installation. No reboot is required after installation if you had prepared the system properly for Maystor installation. Once you have the correct RPM matching your Linux kernel then installation is performed as follows:

  1. Type the RPM install command
    # rpm -ivh mayastor-rhel4-iscsiPRO-1.1.0-1.i686.rpm
  2. Activate the product by supplying the license key
    # /etc/init.d/mayastor activate
  3. Start the MayaStor services # /etc/init.d/mayastor start
  4. Install the MayaStor GUI rpm package.
    # rpm -ivh mayastor-gui-1.0-1.i686.rpm

Configuring MayaStor

The MayaStor GUI installation automatically launches the Mayaserv web server for remote administration. If necessary you may also start it manually by typing
# /opt/mayastor/web/start
By default, the MayaServ web server accepts connection on the TCP port 2020. Point your web browser to http://servername:2020 to access the remote management console.
Once the server software and storage devices have been installed, select Getting Started from the MayaStor Wizards to proceed with the initial configuration. The group of configuration wizards include:

  1. To begin configuring your MayaStor storage server, provide the sign on information to access the remote management console. The default password information is as follows
    Username: admin
    Password: Password

    To change this password you may run the following command from server shell prompt.
    # /opt/mayastor/web/
  2. Once you are logged in successfully click on Getting Started to start the configuration.
  3. The Configure Volume Group window appears and prompts you to begin the volume configuration process. If your system is already configured with volume groups you may Cancel it to proceed to the next step.

Configure Volume Group

A volume group is a collection of one or more physical disks that provide disk storage for the logical volumes. The volume group thus act as storage pool for allocating logical volumes from it.

  1. From the Configure Volume Group window, click Next to start the Volume Group Creation Wizard. The Select Disks for Volume Group window will appear.
  2. The window shows all disks suitable for use as physical volumes. For optimal use try to select one or more disks of equal size and performance. From this window you may select disks and then - Click on Detail button to obtain some information about the disk data. - Click on Erase to wipe out partition table information Once you are satisfied with the selection of disks, click Next to continue and the Create Volume Group options window will appear.
  3. In this window you will be assigning a name to this volume group and also optionally specifying some description about this volume for your reference. You may leave the Physical Extent size to be of default value.
  4. Click Next and a window to confirm the volume group settings will appear. Once you are completely satisfied with it, click Finish to actually create the volume group and Getting Started - Configure Volume window appears.

Configure Volume

After you have created a volume group, the Getting Started wizard takes you into the Configure Volume wizard. You will create a new logical volume that will be mapped to the application server later.

  1. From the Configure Volume window, click Next and the Select a Volume Group window appears.
  2. Select the volume group by clicking on the checkbox. Click Next and Create MayaStor Volume window appears.
  3. In this window specify the following volume parameters
    Volume Label
    volume name that is precise and easy to identify.
    optional description about this volume for your reference
    Volume size
    Input volume size that is suffixed with m for Megabytes up to t for terabytes. For example to create a volume of size 20 gigabytes, you may specify 20G or 20g.
  4. Click Next and the Confirm New Volume Settings window appears. Once you are satisfied with the volume settings click Finish to create that volume. Upon completion the Getting Started - Configure Application Servers wizard appears.

Configure Application Servers

The application servers are the clients in the storage area network identified by its unique protocol specific address. For example a Fibre Channel application server is identified by its World Wide Port Name. The iSCSI client is identified by iSCSI qualified name and/or by its IP address. You would specify application server entries to restrict access to the shared volumes.

  1. From the Configure Application Servers wizard click Next and Select Application server type window appears.
  2. In this window select IP SAN to create a ISCSI application server entry. Otherwise select Fibre Channel SAN to create a Fibre channel server entry.
  3. If you have selected IP SAN then the following parameters are required
    Application server
    Here you will specify a name for the server that is precise and is easy to identify. The label is just local to the MayaStor StorageServer and not to be confused with the DNS host names.
    Optionally specify a brief description for you reference.
    Address information
    The IP SAN client is identified by its IP address and ISCSI qualified name. You may choose to input only its IP address or the iSCSI name.
  4. Click Next and to finish the application server wizard. The window to confirm application server entry appears. Click Finish to actually create the application server entry. Now the Getting Started - Configure Volume Mappings window appears.

Configure Volume Mappings

A mapping specifies how a MayaStor volume will be identified in the storage area network. It often includes the controller port and a LUN value for access from application server. You may optionally allow access only to a list of application servers specified in the mapping.

  1. From the Configure Volume Mappings wizard click Next and Select MayaStor Volume window appears.
  2. In this window the following parameters have to filled in.
    Select a MayaStor volume that you are sharing over the storage network.
    Select the controller port over which the volume will appear as LUN.
  3. Click Next and Specify Mapping Details window appears. In this window the following inputs are required:
    - Create iSCSI target node
    Click on New iSCSI target and specify a valid ISCSI name. It is always prefixed with vendor domain A valid iSCSI name would be
    - To protect volume access with user name and password select Use CHAP authentication.
    - To specify list of application server that can discover this target, select Authorized access only.
  4. Click Next and window to Confirm Mapping Settings appears. Click Finish to actually create this new mapping.
  5. After this the Congratulations window appears. In this window the newly created mappings for the volume will appear and click Finish to activate the mappings. Now the volumes are ready to be scanned from the application servers.

Accessing MayaStor volume

Once you have successfully created mappings for volumes and activated them, you are ready to test the networked volume by accessing it from the application server. By clicking on Add or remove Mappings make sure the status on the volume is online.

Configuring application server

In this chapter you will learn how to access the created volume from Microsoft Windows application server. First you need to download the latest Microsoft iSCSI initiator 2.0 as of this writing. The configuration of target is performed as follows

  1. Launch the iSCSI initiator control panel from Start | Control Panel | iSCSI Initiator. The main window appears.
  2. On the Discovery properties page, add the IP address of the Mayastor storage server serving the volume.
  3. Access the Targets tab and it will show the iSCSI name of the Mayastor volume that was created. The status will appear as inactive, since it is not logged in yet.
  4. To connect to the target, click the Log On button and it will prompt you for advanced configurations. Click OK to proceed with the default values.
  5. Upon successful completion of the login process the status should change to Connected. Click Details to view target session details.
  6. The target details window shows the following:
    - Session
    - Devices
    - Properties.
    In this window you may configure additional connections to the same target for higher performance and througput.
  7. Click on Connections from Session tab property page to add additional connections.
  8. Click Add to add a new connection and repeat this to add as many connections as you like. The Mayastor storage server allows up to four connections per iSCSI session. Advanced Mayastor storage server solutions offer unlimited connections and sessions.
  9. The window shows a advanced iSCSI session configured with 4 connections for higher performance and throughput.
  10. Next launch the Windows disk management console and make sure the newly attached volume is available as disk.

Conducting a performance test using IOMETER

Iometer is a popular utility for measuring disk I/O performance. It can be downloaded for free from Once the iometer is installed launch the utility for performance testing of the newly created volume. The following test was performed on a Mayastor storage server with the following setup.

  1. From the main window of iometer select your server name and the physical disks configured in your system will appear. Identify the disk that represents the newly attached Mayastor volume. Assign the MayaStor iSCSI disk to each of the worker threads. Change the # of Outstanding I/Os from 1 to 8.
  2. Click on Access specifications tab and select 32KB; 100% Read; 0% random. Click Edit Copy to create a copy of this access specification with 64KB block size instead of 32KB.
  3. Change the Transfer Request Size from 32KB to 64KB and click OK.
  4. Click <<Add to assign the Copy of 32K; 100% Read;0% random to each of the worker threads. The number of worker threads is dependent on the number of logical processors in the system.
  5. Start the iometer the tests by clicking on the green flag icon.
  6. Click Results Display and adjust the Update Frequency to 2 seconds. Here you will see the throughput of your iSCSI volume.
  7. Click Stop the stop tests.
  8. Next you will be changing the access specification to measure the number of I/O per second (IOPS).
  9. Click on Access Specifications and remove any assigned access specifications from Assigned Access Specifications. Select 512B; 100% Read; 0% random to measure the IOPS.
  10. Click Disk Targets tab and change the # of Outstanding I/Os to 128
  11. Now start the test by clicking the green flag icon.
  12. Click Results Display tab to view the IOPS for your configuration. Change the Update Frequency to 2 seconds to get a live reading of IOPS measurement.
  13. Click Stop to stop the tests.

Creating a basic partition with NTFS file system

Launch the Computer Management console and click Disk Management folder. The window displays all the disks on your system. In this example we will not be using the dynamic disk feature of Windows instead we use the New Partition wizard to create a basic disk.

  1. Identify the disk that represents the newly attached iSCSI volume. Right-click on unallocated space and select Create Partition.
  2. In the next window select Primary Partition and click Next.
  3. Specify the size of the partition and click Next.
  4. In the next window you will be prompted how to access this volume. Assign a drive letter and click Next.
  5. The Format partition gives you a choice of file systems. Accept the default NTFS file system and select Perform a quick format.
  6. The next window provides a summary of the settings you have specified for the basic disk. Click Finish to create the NTFS file system on the newly created partition.
  7. After this the volume is available for general use in the system.
  8. Launch My Computer folder from Start | My Computer and view the newly configured volume.

This concludes a simple operating system dependent manner to access the Mayastor iSCSI volume from application server.

Product Uninstall/Reinstall

This chapter gives instructions for uninstalling and reinstalling MayaStor software. Before uninstalling make sure there are no Mayastor LUNs actively used by application servers.

Uninstalling MayaStor Software

Caution: This procedure removes the MayaStor volume configuration information. If you intend to do a reinstall be certain to save the configuration file /opt/mayastor/config/volumes and copy it back after reinstalling.

  1. First the MayaStor GUI package has to be removed.
    # rpm -e mayastor-gui
  2. Next remove the MayaStor software
    # rpm -e mayastor-iscsi

Reinstalling MayaStor Software

  1. Type the RPM install command
    # rpm -ivh mayastor-rhel4-iscsiPRO-1.1.0-1.i686.rpm
  2. Activate the product by supplying the license key
    # /etc/init.d/mayastor activate
  3. If you have a saved volume configuration file then restore it to /opt/mayastor/config/volumes
  4. Start the MayaStor services
    # /etc/init.d/mayastor start
  5. Install the MayaStor GUI rpm package.
    # rpm -ivh mayastor-gui-1.0-1.i686.rpm